Cebuano Grammar Essentials: Enclitics in the Visayan/Cebuano Language

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Enclitics or particles are insertions that give additional meaning to a statement .  They are very short words.  In the succeeding sentences...

Enclitics or particles are insertions that give additional meaning to a statement.  They are very short words.  In the succeeding sentences try to find out where they are found or located in the statements.    This is just an introduction or a presentation of the topic.





I will be discussing them in depth soon.

Na (already)
Patay na ang iro.             The dog is already dead.

Pa (yet/still)
Ulitawo pa si Peter.         Peter is still a bachelor.

Bisan (even)
Nitrabaho ko bisan ug na-ay koy sakit.               

 I went to work even if I was ill.
            
Gihapon (still/as usual) 
Isda gihapon ang sud-an.                                    

The *viand is still fish.     
 *dish that is eaten with rice.
           
Sab/Sad/Pud (also, too)
Buotan sab si Karen.                                           

Karen is also kind.

Lang/Ra (only/just)
Magpahuway lang ko.                                        

 I will just take a rest.    (Which word means take a rest?)
                         
Kunó (expression that indicates someone is quoting another)
Bayad kuno.                                                       

Someone said here's his payment.

Usa  (connotes temporariness/first before the other; spoken with a rising intonation on the first syllable but stress is on the vowel a)
Adto usa sa simbahan usa ka molakaw.               

Go to church first before you leave.

Na sab (when there is shift in view point or role)
Ikaw na sab.                                                       

It’s your turn.

Kahâ (expression of speculation; spoken fast and abruptly stopping at the last a)
Unsa kaha 'ni?                                                    

 I wonder what this is?

Diáy (an expression of mild surprise )
  (it can also mean really, showing a surprise or a confirmation at what you’ve heard.
Minyo na diay siya?                                           

Oh, so he is already married? 
                                  
Unta (expression of hope)
Gusto unta ko mopalit ug daghang prutas.            

 I had hoped to buy a lot of fruits.

Ba  (Question Marker)
Mokaon ka ba og karne?                                    

Do you eat meat?

Man (depending on the context, this could mean, at all, too, or just a softener.) 
Maayo man ko.                                                  

I'm doing great.  (softener)


Tingale/Siguro (used as maybe, perhaps or might be).
Moulan tingale kay init kaayo.                            

 It might rain because it's so hot.


Gani  (Depending on the context, it could mean, not even, or used when asking someone to repeat an information that was previously known.

Wala gani ka mokaon ug paniudto.                    
You did not even eat lunch.

Unsa gani to ang email address nimo?                
What did you say your email address is?

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Cebuano Teacher: Cebuano Grammar Essentials: Enclitics in the Visayan/Cebuano Language
Cebuano Grammar Essentials: Enclitics in the Visayan/Cebuano Language
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